UPDATE, 3.50pm: Why Pell did not apply for bail
A statement has been released by George Pell's lawyers on why he did not apply for bail:
"Cardinal George Pell has not applied for bail today. He believes it is appropriate from him to await sentencing.
An appeal has already been lodged to be pursued following sentence.
Despite the unprecedented media coverage, Cardinal Pell has always and continues to maintain his innocence.
Like any person he has the right to pursue his legal rights and will do so."
UPDATE, 3.35pm: Pell sent to jail
Judge Peter Kidd has ended today's court proceedings by sending George Pell into custody.
Pell was walked out of the silent courtroom by security guards. He bowed to the judge and left silently by a side door about 15 metres to his left.
The entire gallery turned around in their seats and faced the back of the courtroom to witness his exit.
UPDATE, 3.20pm: Judge Peter Kidd has strongly rejected the media's request to have access to victim impact statements.
The judge says the topic of victims being treated poorly in court processes is often debated in the media.
"And now you want access to victim impact statements that weren't even read out in court, so they can be put on the front pages?" Judge Kidd asked Sandip Mukerjea, the lawyer representing media outlets.
"Victim trauma needs to be protected ... you're not getting the victim impact statements."
The judge said lawyers acting for clients "shouldn't have to be concerned about this information being on the front page of The Age the next day".
UPDATE, 3.05pm: After defence lawyer Robert Richter finished his submissions, prosecutor Mark Gibson conceded George Pell's time in custody would be onerous.
It is not yet known where Pell will be jailed and Judge Kidd instructed Mr Gibson not to mention in open court any location where he will be imprisoned.
Judge Kidd said while in jail Pell might be considered a "lightning rod for the ills of the Catholic church", and Mr Gibson conceded the cardinal's case had attracted unprecedented attention in the media.
The prosecutor concluded his submission by mentioning the impact of the crimes on the two choirboys. "As we know, five or six minutes of abuse can last a lifetime," he said.
UPDATE, 3.02pm: Defence lawyer Robert Richter said Pell, 77, had a history of cardiac problems and had endured great stress since he was charged.
He was in 2017 charged with offences based on allegations made by nine complainants - spanning a period from the 1970s to 1997 - but that only the allegations made by the choirboys had proceeded to trial.
His age and high profile, and the crimes he had been convicted of, made him vulnerable in jail, and would make his time in custody more onerous.
"He has also been portrayed in the media and everywhere else as the incarnation of evil in the Catholic church," he said.
UPDATE, 2.45pm: In making his submission on the personal difficulties George Pell has faced fighting charges, defence lawyer Robert Richter referenced a book that "pre-judged" Pell's guilt.
Mr Richter said the book, by ABC journalist Louise Milligan, should never have been published, and was eventually pulled form shelves.
Mr Richter said Pell has also faced undue personal suffering throughout the case as he was abused in public and had placards "held up to his face".
UPDATE, 2.36pm: The court has reconvened. Defence lawyer Robert Richter, QC, is now addressing the court on abuse he received during the lunch break outside court.
Judge Kidd condemns the abuse. The assault on Mr Richter is an "assault on the court", according to Judge Kidd.
"I view that as raising a really serious example of contempt ... and I would want to see that person prosecuted."
"This is not a game - the system requires defenseman counsel to defend people."
UPDATE, 1.55pm: George Pell’s defence lawyer Robert Richter, QC, was jeered as he left court by abuse survivor advocates, who shouted at him “dirty money” and “paedophile protector”.
The court is breaking for lunch and will resume at 2.15pm.
UPDATE, 1.13pm: The court has broken for lunch and will resume at 2.15pm. George Pell stood up waiting for the public gallery to leave the courtroom before exiting to a small adjacent room.
He is now bunkered in the small room with his legal team.
UPDATE, 1pm: Defence lawyer Robert Richter has conceded the crimes involved a violent act, in that George Pell grabbed each boy by the head before he sexually assaulted them, despite their protests.
There was an abuse of power, the lawyer said, in that Pell was at the time a large, powerful man.
But later, Mr Richter said the crimes didn't involve threats of violence, other physical violence, or subsequent offending.
The offending was of a short duration, he said, and overall there were no aggravating features in Pell's crimes.
That submission drew several sighs from some people in the gallery.
UPDATE, 12.38pm: Defence lawyer Robert Richter has told the court he disagreed with prosecution submissions that Pell's crimes were a breach of trust, because it was not the situation that the then-Archbishop groomed the boys or had an existing relationship with them.
But Judge Kidd said the crimes took place after the boys' parents had entrusted their sons to the care of the church that day.
"The person who stood at the top of that was your client," he told Mr Richter.
The defence lawyer then submitted the only reason the boys were in the sacristy was because they were being naughty.
But Judge Kidd replied: "I am not attracted to that submission."
Several people in the court murmured in approval of the judge's response.
UPDATE, 12.23pm: George Pell maintained he was innocent, Mr Richter said. But based on the convictions, Mr Richter classified the offending as spur of the moment and not premeditated, and conceded jail was appropriate given the need to deter others.
But Judge Kidd disagreed with the lawyer's submission that there was time for Pell to reflect before he abused the boys. There was time to reflect before the offending, but Pell made a choice, the judge said, "and continued to make it for five minutes".
The judge said he considered the offending as serious.
"I see this as callous, brazen offending. It did involve a breach of trust and a degree of impunity. How else did he think he was going to get away with it?" Judge Kidd said.
Pell exploited two vulnerable boys, Judge Kidd said, and displayed a degree of force in grabbing the boys by the head in sexually assaulting them.
"There was an element of brutality to this assault, it was an attack. In my thinking at the moment I am not near the low end of offending."
Judge Kidd said Mr Richter's submission to the jury, that only a "madman" would abuse the boys in the room while the door was open, had been rejected by the jury.
"On the face of it that leaves to me only one conclusion: that at the time he felt he was going to get away with it," Judge Kidd said.
UPDATE, 12.20pm: Pell has reportedly withdrawn his bail application at the Court of Appeal, which was set for 2.30pm today. This means he is more than likely to spend tonight in jail.
UPDATE, 11.54am: Mr Richter has begun his submission by referring to the crowd outside the court building, which included some people with placards critical of Pell. This represented a "nadir" since the case had become public.
"This is a court of law not a court of morals," he said. "Therefore your honour is bound to act on the jury's verdict."
Mr Richter has referenced a number of people who have provided character references for Pell, one of which is a man named John Howard. It is not totally clear at this stage whether it is the former Liberal prime minister.
Australian Catholic University Vice-Chancellor Greg Graven is another who has submitted a reference.
Mr Richter says the character references detail Pell's "kindness and generosity", and his "life devoted to service".
UPDATE, 11.40am: Judge Kidd has reconvened the hearing following a 20-minute break, with Mr Richter now putting forward the defence's arguments.
UPDATE, 11.35am: Prime Minister Scott Morrison will ask the Governor-General to revoke George Pell's Order of Australia but only after the appeal, if it's unsuccessful.
EARLIER: Cardinal George Pell has entered a Melbourne court this morning to learn his fate following his conviction for child sex offences.
Pell will be classified as a serious sex offender once he is sentenced.
In closing his submissions, Mr Gibson called on Pell to be jailed, although prosecutors are prevented from nominating a sentence range.
"This offending warrants immediate imprisonment," he said.
Judge Kidd has previously said he would likely impose a sentence some time over the next two weeks.
Pell's attack on the second boy in the second incident, in 1997, was brazen and forceful, the prosecutor said.
In discussion, Judge Kidd questioned whether in Pell's mind at the time he thought he could get away with his crimes, which he described as "utterly brazen", and thought he had a degree of impunity.
Judge Kidd said public denunciation and deterring others from committing similar crimes would "loom large" in sentencing.
Pell's prospects for rehabilitation were very good and it was unlikely he would reoffend, the judge said.
Mr Gibson said Pell had never shown any remorse or insight for his crimes, had not taken responsibility or explained them, although he conceded the 77-year-old was at an advanced age and unlikely to commit further crimes.
Earlier Pell has had to push through a crowd of protesters as he arrived at his pre-sentence court hearing in Melbourne, after which he could be remanded in custody.
There were cries of "you're filth" and "go to hell" as Pell, 77, arrived at the County Court on Wednesday morning after being convicted of five child sex offences.
It took several minutes for Pell to make his way from a car through the gauntlet of protesters, police, flashing cameras and reporters before filing into the building.
As he sat in the court dock, he was flanked by three guards, with two armed police officers in the courtroom, which was filled with abuse survivors, reporters and Pell supporters.
Pell may be taken into custody at the end of the hearing before Chief Judge Peter Kidd, who will hear pre-sentencing submissions from both crown and defence legal teams.
But he is listed to make a bail application in the Court of Appeal on Wednesday afternoon.
Pell was found guilty by a jury in December of orally raping a 13-year-old choirboy in 1996 and molesting another at St Patrick's Cathedral in East Melbourne.
He is the highest-ranking Catholic to have been found guilty of such offences, and he had been newly appointed Archbishop of Melbourne when he committed the crimes.
The news was made public in Australia on Tuesday when a gag order was lifted, sending shockwaves across the world and through the Catholic church.
Lawyers for Pell, who maintains his innocence, have lodged an application for leave to appeal the convictions.
On Tuesday, Pell's lawyer Robert Richter QC accepted a prison sentence was inevitable but said he intended to appeal on three grounds, including that the jury verdict was unreasonable as it was contrary to the evidence.
The historical offences each carry a maximum 10-year prison sentence.
George Pell's lawyers are pushing for a retrial - or for the cardinal's child sex convictions to be set aside.
His legal team applied for leave to appeal his convictions with the Court of Appeal on February 21, Robert Richter QC told Victoria's County Court on Tuesday.
Pell's guilty verdict was made public on Tuesday after months of secrecy surrounding the trial.
He was convicted in December of orally raping one choirboy in Melbourne's St Patrick's Cathedral and molesting another in 1996.
Mr Richter said the appeal application was made on three grounds, firstly that the verdict of the jury was unreasonable and contrary to evidence.
He said he'd also argue there should be a retrial, on the grounds a graphic he wanted to use in the trial was rejected - and that there was a problem with the way the jury was constituted.
The Court of Appeal will hear the application for leave to appeal at a date to be confirmed.
If leave is granted, an appeal hearing may then proceed.